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Advances in Gynaecologic Oncology Surgery: Techniques, Outcomes, and Future Prospects

Celestein Pears

Gynecologic oncology surgery has witnessed remarkable advancements in recent years, driven by a deeper understanding of cancer biology, technological innovations, and refined surgical techniques. This abstract aims to provide an overview of key developments in the field of gynecologic oncology surgery, highlighting both established and emerging trends. The landscape of surgery for gynecologic malignancies, including ovarian, uterine, cervical, and vulvar cancers, has evolved significantly. Minimally invasive approaches, such as laparoscopy and robotic-assisted surgery, have gained prominence due to their potential for reduced morbidity, shorter hospital stays, and improved cosmetic outcomes [1]. Complex procedures, such as radical hysterectomy and pelvic exoneration, are increasingly being performed using these techniques, ensuring optimal disease control while enhancing patient quality of life. Advancements in imaging modalities have facilitated accurate preoperative staging, leading to better patient selection for surgical intervention. Additionally, sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy techniques have revolutionized lymphadenectomy practices, reducing the risk of lymphedema and postoperative complications. Precision medicine has also impacted gynecologic oncology surgery. Targeted therapies and neoadjuvant interventions are altering the surgical landscape by downsizing tumors, enhancing resectability, and improving overall treatment outcomes [2]. The integration of genomic data into surgical decision-making holds promise for tailoring surgical approaches to individual patient profiles. Reconstructive surgery following gynecologic oncology procedures has gained traction, aiming to restore form and function while minimizing psychosocial sequelae. Techniques such as flap surgery and tissue engineering are being explored to address the challenges posed by extensive resections. While remarkable progress has been achieved, challenges remain. Optimizing surgical training, ensuring equitable access to advanced techniques, and managing long-term survivorship issues are among the ongoing considerations in gynecologic oncology surgery.