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Clinical Applications of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: From Melanoma to Breast Cancer

Kinam Zhiang

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has evolved as a crucial technique in surgical oncology, revolutionizing cancer staging and therapeutic decision-making across various malignancies. This comprehensive review explores the clinical applications of SLNB, spanning the spectrum from melanoma to breast cancer. By focusing on these distinct tumor types, we aim to highlight the versatility and impact of SLNB in diverse clinical scenarios. In melanoma, SLNB has emerged as a gold standard for nodal staging, allowing for precise identification of sentinel lymph nodes and facilitating early detection of metastatic disease. We discuss the evolving role of SLNB in melanoma management, addressing its diagnostic accuracy, prognostic significance, and influence on treatment strategies. Breast cancer represents another area where SLNB has made significant inroads. Its utilization has enabled clinicians to tailor surgical approaches and adjuvant therapies, minimizing unnecessary axillary dissections and their associated morbidity. We examine the current guidelines and controversies surrounding SLNB in breast cancer, shedding light on its integration into multidisciplinary care.